Reference: Matthew 22:1-14
Could you please explain the end of the parable in Matthew 22:11-13. All the people who were coming to the feast were wearing wedding clothes, except one. First, how did the guy without the clothes get into the feast? For us the feast means the feast in heaven and the wedding clothes are our new life in Christ. So can I get into heaven without putting on the new clothes? Or was the reason to throw the man outside not for wearing the wrong clothes but because he couldn’t reply to the King’s question? He calls the man Friend, so he wasn’t mad at the beginning of the conversation.
How do I interpret this parable (and others)?
A note on interpretation of parables:
The interpretation of parables is not an easy task, and this parable is considered by many to be THE MOST DIFFICULT to interpret. Unfortunately parable interpretation is a difficult task that scholars have made even more difficult for centuries by ‘over interpreting’ the parables. The tendency of most people (including historical smarties) is to apply allegory to the parable where it does not belong. Allegory is a literary device that uses elements of a story to represent elements of real life. The Wizard of Oz for example, is an allegory. The Tin Man represents the industrial revolution, the Scarecrow represents the midwest farmer, etc. Almost every character and setting in the story has some symbolic meaning. Some parables have allegorical elements, but we must resist the temptation to allegorize the parables. Usually they are simple stories that have a specific intent. They are not all-encompassing allegories in which everything has some hidden meaning. Jesus was not trying to speak in some hidden code. Thus, in this parable, we should be slow to assign specific allegorical meanings to each element and instead ask the simple question, What is Jesus’ message here?
To do so though there are some things we need to know…
The Parable of the Feast in Matthew (an Explanation)
“Friend, where is your wedding garment” - 14th Century Russian icon of the 'Parable of the Feast'. Note the man on the right being bound and thrown out in the street.
First of all, we need to know WHO Jesus is talking to. This will help a great deal with our understanding. Remember, he’s not talking to us, though once we have come to an understanding of Jesus’ intent we can apply it to our lives. For now though, Jesus is talking to some first century Palestinian audience. Most likely he is addressing this parable to the religious leaders of Israel. We can gather this given the context and tone of the previous parable, the immediate transition from the previous parable, and the opening of this parable “Jesus told them”, we can assume that “them” refers the religious leaders that he was already pissing off in chapter 21.
Secondly, we need to understand who this parable is about. Like the previous parable in chapter 21, it is likely that this parable is also about the priests and Pharisees, though we might be able to apply this to the broader population of Israel.
Lastly, this parable is eschatological (see other posts dealing with eschatology). It has to do with God’s coming kingdom. We can gather this from the language of banquet and feast. These terms would have been synonymous with the end times for first century listeners. So also is the phrase “weeping and gnashing of teeth” which would have been synonymous with judgment and the end.
Even with this little bit of knowledge we can begin to piece together the intent of this parable. Essentially what Jesus is communicating to his listeners here is that it is often those who we may not expect who will be invited into the Kingdom. Imagine what this would have been like for the Pharisees and teachers of the law to hear. They think that they are a shoe-in for heaven, they think that they have lived there lives perfectly and all their ducks are in a row. Jesus has other ideas though. He sees a group of people who think that their merit and their Jewish-birth-status will earn them salvation. They think that they are already there at the feast, but the reality is that they haven’t even responded to the invitation.
For us the message is simple. “The Kingdom is like a prepared banquet, and to refuse its invitation is to encounter judgment” (Snodgrass, 320). It is a harsh message to be sure. We would probably like it better if Jesus was more “nice guy” and just let everyone come without the whole destruction and killing part. But remember that our God of grace and love is also a God of justice and judgment.
At the end of the parable we still need to deal with another part that can be a bit confusing. The last 3 verses (Matt. 22:11-13) are thought by some to be part of another parable that was added on to this one. Whether or not that is true, we still need to deal with the intent of what Jesus was trying to say, when he talks about a man who was at the feast without the proper clothes for the wedding feast.
Fortunately we have already dealt with who Jesus is addressing and to what the parable is referring. In this apparent addendum to the parable we are dealing with a man who has shown up without proper wedding clothes. Likely his clothes are his every day dirty clothes. Some of us may be tempted to equate the wedding clothes of the other guests as “being clothed in the righteousness of Christ” or something similar, but that is the kind of allegorizing that we should avoid. We need to deal with Jesus’ intent toward a first century Jewish audience, not our own external understanding and Christian imagery. “What is important is that the man made no preparation to wear something fitting to the feast he chose to attend” (321). Simply put, this man in his dirty clothes represents those unrighteous people who make no preparation for the coming Judgement of God. Again, these are harsh themes, but they are important for us as we look toward the return of Christ and consider our own preparation and the pursuit of those who are far from God.
Because of the complexity, length, and two-part nature of this parable it has more than one theme. It has three…
1. The refusal of Israel’s religious leaders to respond to the invitation to the banquet.
2. The gathering of the kingdom of God
3. The separation that takes place at Judgment.
There is no need to assign specific meaning to the man’s non-response at the end, or the king’s initial reference to him as ‘friend’. The important thing is that he showed up for the banquet unprepared and he was Judged accordingly. This is a hard teaching for us but the message for our lives should be very clear. We need to be ready for the banquet. Christ promised that he would come “and come quickly” (Revelation 22:12 NASB). Our task is to ready our lives and the lives of others that we meet. Whether we like to hear about God’s Judgement or not does not make its reality any more or less real. Fortunately, our salvation is based not on our merit but on Christ’s work on the cross. Our readiness then, is the product of believing in him. If we believe in him, our lives will reflect the kind of clothes we are supposed to be wearing to the banquet.
See Stories with Intent: A Comprehensive Guide to the Parables of Jesus by Klyne Snodgrass