Reference: Exodus 9
How long was the period of time of the different plagues? It seems that it must have been many years because in one plague God killed all the livestock and then later the livestock had boils.
It is difficult to tell exactly how long the Exodus Plagues took. Thankfully it’s not important at all. Some students of the Bible might like to go through and count days, weeks, tomorrows, etc. that are mentioned in Exodus 7 through 11 (e.g. Exodus 7:25). This rough calculation ends up somewhere in the vicinity of 2 weeks to a month. But this doesn’t account for larger (unmentioned) time spans that could have occurred between other plagues. We cannot comment on things that scripture leaves unsaid. The fact is that the author of Exodus does not tell us how long the process took. Probably because it doesn’t matter.
But what do we do with the apparent contradiction in this chapter?
In chapter 9, it says that all the livestock of the Egyptians were killed (Exodus 9:6), but later in the same chapter we see that livestock of the Egyptians were subject to other plagues. The following plague of the boils stuck the “animals” in the land. It does not say “livestock”, in fact it is a completely different word in the original Hebrew. Livestock refers to the animals raised for human use. Animals is a broader term that encompasses all animals. Thus, we don’t need to jump to the conclusion that livestock had repopulated Egypt in time to be struck with boils. However, in the subsequent plague, the plague of hail, it alludes to the fact that the Egyptian livestock were subject to the horrible hail storm. Also, in chapter 14 Pharaoh and his army chase after the Israelites on their horses, so clearly there were livestock still alive in Egypt. How could there be livestock if they had all been killed in the fifth plague? What explanation could there be for that?
Well, I could be a smart-alek and point out that God said back in verse 3 of chapter 9 that he would strike down the livestock ‘in the field’. Thus, those livestock that were not outside would not have been affected by the plague against the livestock. That answer doesn’t sit well with me though. We should never overlook words and details in scripture, but we should only give them the weight that their communicative intent warrants. Proof-texting and word-for-word literalizing does the meaning of the text a disservice. When interpreting scripture, we need to continually ask the question “what is this passage trying to communicate?”. Exodus is not a historical document like we understand historical documents today. Thus, even when we read in scripture what we would call contradictions, it does not diminish its truth or its weight for our lives.
This passage is not trying to communicate the subtleties of the plagues, it IS trying to communicate the power of God, the rescue of God, and the glory of God. We also see the significance of what it means for the will of a man (Pharaoh) to contend with the will of God. This is a significant theme throughout scripture, and here we see that although God gives us free will, ultimately God will not contend with our disobedience, and he will accomplish his perfect providential will. In this case, part of that providential will was releasing his people from captivity. The amount of time that the plagues took, or the appearance of what we might call a contradiction does not change what this passage was meant to say.